Ramsey Library Research Guides

Citing Sources

Start Here: General Guides | APA | MLA | CBE
Government Resources | Legal Citation
Critical thinking about Web sites  

Formatting a list of works cited in a paper is not always easy, especially when dealing with Web pages, online journals, and full-text articles from library databases. Don't be afraid to ask a librarian or your instructor for guidance. In some cases, referring to the latest printed style manual may be your best route. The library has several copies of APA, MLA, and other widely-used style manuals at the Research Support Desk.

General Guides

Citing Sources, Guide to Library Research  - Includes examples from APA, Chicago, MLA, and Turabian for most types of sources. Duke University Libraries. 

Sources: Their Use and Acknowledgment - Examples for citing traditional and electronic publications. Dartmouth College.

Style Sheets for Citing Resources (Print & Electronic). Examples and general rules for MLA, APA, & Chicago. UC Berkeley Library. 

Online! Citation Styles - Citation styles for the total range of online information: Web site, e-mail message, Web discussion forum posting, listserv message, newsgroup, real-time communication, and more. Bedford/St. Martin's Press.

Citation Guides for Electronic Documents - Links from the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions.

"The Citation Machine" - You supply the necessary data and the citation machine will format your citations for you. Some folks like it, some folks don't. If in doubt, ask your instructor.


APA Style: Electronic References - Official APA guidelines include citation formats for Web sites, electronic journal articles and abstracts from electronic databases, and email communications.

Online! Citation Styles - APA - from Bedford/St. Martin's Press.

APA Citation Style - from Cornell University Library.


Modern Language Association - Official MLA citation formats for Web sites, electronic journal articles, and more.

Using Modern Language Association (MLA) Format - Concise and recently updated, with good examples. Purdue Online Writing Lab.

Online! Citation Styles - MLA - from Bedford/St. Martin's Press.

CBE (Biology and Natural Sciences)

Online! Citation Styles - CBE - from Bedford/St. Martin's Press.

Government Resources

Citing Government Information Sources - University of Nevada Reno. How to cite several types of Government information sources in MLA style.

Legal Citation

Introduction to Basic Legal Citation - Peter W. Martin, Cornell Law School. Organized by type of material, such as cases, laws, constitutions, etc. Does not emphasize electronic materials, but guides for legal materials are rare enough to warrant including it anyway.

Critical Thinking about Web sites

Thinking Critically about WWW Resources - Excellent checklist and teaching tool about Web resources by Esther Grassian, UCLA College Library.

How to Critically Analyze Information Sources - Cornell University tutorial

Evaluating Quality on the Web - Babson College

Evaluating Web Resources - Widener University. A bit complex for the Web newbie, but insight into how many librarians view the Web as a "scholarly" resource.

Internet Resources - Not an evaluation site, but a treasure house of Internet Teaching Tools. Includes an excellent guide to Web search engines. See Beyond General World Wide Web Searching for ways to find quality information.

Using the Internet & World Wide Web for Research (pdf; 18 pages; 360K) - by Bryan Sinclair and Araby Greene. Chap. 6 from Making Sense of Library Research: A Guide for Undergraduate Students, 2001 Revised Electronic Edition.

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This page last updated 18 April 2005.

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