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Citing Special Collections materials in Chicago/Turabian style: Citing Primary Materials in Special Collections

Citing Primary Sources - Overview

This page includes citation examples for different kinds of primary sources using the Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS), 16th edition, and Kate Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 8th edition. This guide shows how to create an initial citation, a subsequent note, and a bibliography entry for primary sources.

Materials covered include:

  • Manuscript & Document Collections
  • Oral Histories
  • Maps and Illustrations
  • Photographs
  • Digitized materials from our website

A word about "Preferred Citation" and "Citation" information in Special Collections' finding aids: 

Nearly all Special Collections finding aids include basic citation information. Sometimes it's labeled "Preferred Citation," and other times it's  labeled "Citation."  This information typically includes the following information:

  • the name of the collection (such as "Ernest A. Mills Family Collection")
  • the name of the repository - D. H. Ramsey Library Special Collections
  • the location of the repository - University of North Carolina at Asheville, Asheville, NC 28804

The other details needed for a citation (such as the name of the item, the author of the item, and the box and folder number) will emerge during your research.

If you have any questions about citing materials from Special Collections, ask one of the Special Collections staff or your professor.

Citing Manuscript Collections in print and online

Special Collections contains nearly 200 manuscript collections, such as the Frank Coxe Papers or the Carolina Mountain Club Archive. Manuscript collections may contain letters, legal documents, company records, reports, photographs, maps, and other materials. Most finding aids include some basic information that you will need for your citation. Here are two examples:

From the finding aid for the Frank Coxe Papers:

Preferred Citation

[Identification of item],Frank Coxe Papers, D.H. Ramsey Library, Special Collections, University of North Carolina at Asheville 28804

 

From the finding aid for the Carolina Mountain Club Archives:

Citation

Carolina Mountain Club Archive, D.H. Ramsey Library, Special Collections, University of North Carolina at Asheville 28804.

 

Example 1: Citing a document from a manuscript collection

 

Look at the citation information from the Carolina Mountain Club finding aid above. This has basic information about the collection, repository, and location of repository that you will need for your citation, but you will also add more information as you conduct your research

For instance, you might be working with the Carolina Mountain Club Archives, and you want to cite a specific document, the "Certificate of Incorporation of the Carolina Mountain Club" which is dated September 2, 1924. You found this document in Folder 19 in Box 15. There is a corporate author, the Carolina Mountain Club. (For more detailed information on citing manuscript collections, see the "Manuscript Collections" section of the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition, sections 14.232-14.242, pp. 749-752.)

So you have your document and you want to cite it. Now what? Let's take a look at how this would work:

Name of author (if known)
Name or title of item
Collection name
Box number and file number
Repository Location of repository
Date

 

Note (First mention, full reference):

        1. Carolina Mountain Club, "Certificate of Incorporation of the Carolina Mountain Club," 2 September 1924, Box 15, Folder 19, Carolina Mountain Club Archives, D. H. Ramsey Library Special Collections, University of North Carolina at Asheville, Asheville, NC.     

  • Note that this is a full reference. The first line is indented.
  • If the author is an individual, their name should be listed with the first name then last name (Frank Coxe).
  • Sometimes you will not have an author. In this case, start the note with the name or title of the item.
  • If the item has a specific title, as this one does, then that title is in quotation marks. If the item does not have a title but only a description it does not go in quotation marks.
  • If the item does not have a date use the phrase n.d. (for no date) 
  • Use a comma after all the elments in the note and a period at the end of the note. 

 

Note (Subsequent mentions, shortened reference):    

      7. Carolina Mountain Club, "Certificate of Incorporation."

  • The shortened reference refers to a work that has already been cited in full form but not in a note immediately preceding it (which takes the ibid form).
  • The first line is indented, but the note only requires the author's name and the title of the document (which is sometimes shortened).

 

Bibliography:


Carolina Mountain Club ArchivesD. H. Ramsey Library Special Collections. University of North Carolina at
Asheville, Asheville, NC.
     
  • The first line is not indented, but the second line and all following lines are indented.
  • Use a period after the collection name, after the repository name, and at the end of the bibliography entry.
  • While the note included the item or document being cited, the bibliography does not include specific items -- unless only one item from a collection is cited. Then you would list the individual item in addition to the collection, repository, and repository location.
    • For instance, if you cited two or more items from this collection, then you would use the bibliography entry as listed above.
    • If you cited only one item from this collection then your bibliography entry would look like this:
Carolina Mountain Club. "Certificate of Incorporation of the Carolina Mountain Club." Carolina Mountain
Club ArchivesD. H. Ramsey Library Special Collections. University of North Carolina at Asheville,
Asheville, NC.

 

Example 2: Citing a personal letter from a manuscript collection

Look at the citation information from the Frank Coxe Papers finding aid above. This has basic information about the collection, repository, and location of repository that you will need for your citation, but you will also add more information as you conduct your research

Let's say you're working with the Frank Coxe Papers and you find a letter you want to cite. The letter is from A. B. Harris to Frank Coxe, and it was written on March 25, 1889. You found this letter in Folder 6 in Box 2. While this is similar to the Carolina Mountain Club example above it varies in how you cite the names of individuals and how you cite the actual letter. 

So you have your document and you want to cite it. Now what? Let's take a look at how this would work:

Name of author (if known)
Name or title of item
Collection name
Box number and file number
Repository Location of repository
Date

Note (First mention, full reference):

        1. A. B. Harris to Frank Coxe, 25 March 1889, Box 2, Folder 6, Frank Coxe Papers, D. H. Ramsey Library Special Collections, University of North Carolina at Asheville, Asheville, NC.     

  • Note that this is a full reference. The first line is indented.
  • Since the author is an individual rather than a corporate author, his name should be listed with the first name then last name (A.B. Harris). The same holds true for the recipient of the letter (Frank Coxe).
  • Sometimes you will not have a date. In this case, use the phrase n.d.
  • Use a comma after every element of the note and a period at the end of the note. 
  • After you’ve listed one full reference, any other footnote/endnote citing this specific source will use a shortened reference or ibid.

 Note (Subsequent mentions, shortened reference):    

      7. A. B. Harris to Frank Coxe, 25 March 1889, Coxe Papers. 

  • The shortened reference refers to a work that has already been cited in full form but not in a note immediately preceding it (which takes the ibid form).
  • The first line is indented, but the note only requires the author's name and the title of the document (which is sometimes shortened).

 Bibliography:


Coxe, Frank., PapersD. H. Ramsey Library Special Collections. University of North Carolina at Asheville,
       Asheville, NC.

     

  • The first line is not indented, but the second line and all following lines are indented.
  • Because this collection contains the papers of an individual, the collection name is listed with the person's last name first, followed by a comma, then the first name, then a comma, then "Papers," then a period: Coxe, Frank., Papers.
  • Use a period after the collection name, after the repository name, and at the end of the bibliography entry.
  • While the note cites an individual item or document, the bibliography entry does not list specific items -- unless only one item from a collection is cited. In that case the bibliography will include the individual item in addition to the collection, repository, and repository location.
    • In other words, if you cited two or more items from the Frank Coxe Paper, then you would use the bibliography entry as listed above.
    • If you cited only one item from the Frank Coxe Papers in your paper, then your bibliography entry would look like this:

Harris, A. B., and Frank Coxe. Letter of 25 March 1889. Frank Coxe Papers.  D. H.
       Ramsey Library Special Collections. University of North Carolina at Asheville, Asheville, NC.

 

Example 3: Citing an online document from a manuscript collection

The Chicago Manual of Style states that "It should be noted that citations of collections consulted online... will usually be the same as citations of physical collections, aside from the addition of a URL or DOI." (14.232, p 749)

How does this work?

Let's say you are researching the building of the Battery Park Hotel and using the Frank Coxe Papers. You find this doucment in the Western North Carolina Heritage website (which is part of Special Collections at UNC Asheville):  "Specificiations for Standard Hydraulic Passenger Elevator to be manufactured by Otis Brothers & Co." The document is dated February 24, 1886, and is a digitized document from the Frank Coxe Papers. The corporate author is Otis Brothers & Co. The URL is http://cdm15733.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15733coll5/id/13. 

Here's how you would cite this:

Note (First mention, full reference):

        1. Otis Brothers & Co., "Specifications for Standard Hydraulic Passenger Elevator to be manufactured by Otis Brothers & Co.," 24 February 1889, Frank Coxe Papers, D. H. Ramsey Library Special Collections, University of North Carolina at Asheville, Asheville, NC., accessed November 12, 2014, http://cdm15733.contentdm.oclc.org/
cdm/ref/collection/p15733coll5/id/13.   
  • Note that this is a full reference. The first line is indented.
  • Use a comma after every element in the note and a period at the end of the note. 
  • After you’ve listed one full reference, any other footnote/endnote citing this specific source will use a shortened reference or ibid.

Note (Subsequent mentions, shortened reference):    

      7. Otis Brothers, Coxe Papers. 

  • The shortened reference refers to a work that has already been cited in full form but not in a note immediately preceding it (which takes the ibid form).
  • The first line is indented, but the note only requires the author's name and the title of the document (which is sometimes shortened).
  • It does not include the URL.

Bibliography:

Otis Brothers & Co. "Specifications for Standard Hydraulic Passenger Elevator to be manufactured by Otis Brothers
         & Co."
24 February 1889. Frank Coxe Papers. D. H. Ramsey Library Special Collections. University of North
Carolina at Asheville, Asheville, NC. Accessed November 12, 2014. http://cdm15733.contentdm.oclc.org/ 
cdm/ref/collection /p15733coll5/id/13.    
  • The first line is not indented, but the second line and all following lines are indented.
  • Use a period after each element in the bibliography.

Citing Oral Histories in Special Collections

Special Collections contains over 600 Oral Histories. Often an oral history may have a tape recording or CD of the actual interview.  Sometimes it may have a transcript of the interview as well.

In Chicago style, the kinds of oral histories we have in Special Collections are treated as unpublished interviews. (For more detailed information, see section 14.218-14.223 of the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed., pp 744-746)

Citing an oral history

Look at this oral history in Special Collections: Hugh Creasman Oral History.   Looking at the information about the oral history, you'll note that the oral history is with Hugh Creasman, he was interviewed by Louis D. Sliveri on August 16, 1976, and that the oral history is part of the Louis D. Silveri Oral History Collection.

According to the Chicago Manual of Style, "unpublished interviews are best cited in text or in notes, although they may occasionally appear in bibliographies." (14.219, p. 744). Check with your professor about whether you should include a bibliography entry for an oral history.  This example will show both a note and an bibliography entry.

Name of Person Interviewed Interview Date
Interviewer's Name
Oral history collection   Location
Transcript or recording
Respository

 

Note (First mention, full reference):

      8. Hugh Creasman, interview by Louis Silveri,  16 August 1976, transcript, Louis Silveri Oral History Collection,
Ramsey Library Special Collections, University of North Carolina at Asheville, Asheville, NC.

  • Note that this is a full reference. The first line is indented.
  • Use commas after all elements and a period at the end of the note.
  • Many oral histories are not part of a collection. If so, omit the collection part of the citation.
  • There may either be a transcript or recording. Cite whichever you used.
  • After you’ve listed one full reference, any other footnote/endnote citing this specific source will use a shortened reference or ibid.

Note (Subsequent Mentions):

Shortened reference:

      10. Creasman, interview.

  • The shortened reference refers to a work that has already been cited in full form but not in a note immediately preceding it (which takes the ibid form).
  • The first line is indented, and the note only requires the interviewee's last name, the title of the article (sometimes shortened), and a specific page reference.

Bibliography (As noted above, check with your professor before making a biblography entry for an oral history. ) 

Creasman, Hugh. Interview by Louis Silveri. 16 August 1976. Transcript.  Louis Silveri Oral History Collection.
     
Ramsey Library Special Collections. University of North Carolina at Asheville, Asheville, NC.

  • The first line is not indented, but the second line and all following lines are indented. 
  • The interviewee's last name is listed first, unlike the note, where it is First Name Last Name.
  • Use periods after all parts of the bibliography (except the comma between "University of North Carolina at Asheville" and "Asheville, NC.")

Citing Maps

Sometimes your research will involve using maps that you will need to cite. In terms of citations, the library has two different types of maps that require different different citations.

  • One type of map is a published map, such as the topographical maps in the map case on the second floor.  
  • The second type are unpublished maps that are part of manuscript collections in Special Collections.
  • This section will show you how to cite both published and unpublished maps.

Citing a published map

Suppose you are writing a paper about the history of the exploration of Mt. Mitchell and you are using a topographic map from the map case on the second floor of the library.  You look at the map and note that it's a US Geological Survey map that was published by the Tennessee Valley Authority.  Further inspection of the map shows the following information: 

  • U.S. Geological Survey (author - who created/authored the map)
  • Mt. Mitchell Quadrangle, North Carolina, 200-SE (the title of the map)
  • 1946 (the publication date)
  • Scale 1:24,000
  • Tennessee Valley Authority, Maps and Surveys Division, Knoxville, TN (the publisher and place)

The format for citing published maps and illustrations is the same (see Chicago Manual of Style,16th ed., 14-165, p. 726) 

Author
Title of map [format] Publication place
Series
Scale Date
Publisher

Note (First mention, full reference):

        1. U.S. Geological Survey, Mt. Mitchell Quadrangle, North Carolina [map], (Knoxville, TN: Tennessee Valley Authority, 1946)

  • Note that this is a full reference. The first line is indented.
  • Sometimes you will not have a date. In this case, use the phrase n.d.
  • Use a comma after the author's name, a comma after the map title, and the format in brackets with a comma after it. The next section is in parentheses, and includes the place of publication followed by a colon, the publisher followed by a comma, and the publication date. 
  • After you’ve listed one full reference, any other footnote/endnote citing this specific source will use a shortened reference or ibid.

Note (Subsequent mentions, shortened reference):    

      7. U.S. Geological SurveyMt. Mitchell Quadrangle. 

  • The shortened reference refers to a work that has already been cited in full form but not in a note immediately preceding it (which takes the ibid form).
  • The first line is indented, but the note only requires the author's name and the title of the document (which is sometimes shortened).

Bibliography:


U.S. Geological Survey. Mt. Mitchell Quadrangle, North Carolina [map]. 1:24,000. Knoxville, TN: Tennessee Valley
Authority, Maps and Surveys Division. 1946.
     
  • The first line is not indented, but the second line and all following lines are indented.
  • Use period after all elements except the place of publication, which takes a colon between it and the publisher.

Citing a unpublished map from a manuscript collection

Special Collections contains hundreds of unpublished maps that can only be found in manuscript collections. Citing a map is like citing a document in a manuscript collection, and follows the same guidelines as above for "Citing a document in a manuscript collection."  Here's an example:

For instance, you are using the Carolina Mountain Club Archives to research a paper about Linville Gorge. You find a hand-drawn map of a hike to Shortoff Mountain. While this map has no actual title written on it, it is important to describe the item so it can be easily identified. There is no date on it and you found it in Folder 9 in Box 8.  There is a corporate author, the Carolina Mountain Club. Let's take a look at how this would work:

Name of author (if known)
Name or title of item
Collection name
Box number and file number
Repository Location of repository
Date

 

Note (First mention, full reference):

        1. Carolina Mountain Club, Hiking map to Shortoff Mountain,  n.d., Box 8, Folder 9, Carolina Mountain Club Archives, D. H. Ramsey Library Special Collections, University of North Carolina at Asheville, Asheville, NC.     

  • Note that this is a full reference. The first line is indented.
  • Because this is part of the Carolina Mountain Club archives and no specific author is noted on the map, use the "Carolina Mountan
  • Note that because Hiking map to Shortoff Mountain is a description of the item rather than a title, is not in quotation marks. If the map actually had the title "Hiking map to Shortoff Mountain" on it, then you would put it in quotation marks as a title.
  • The map does not have a date. In this case, use the phrase n.d.
  • Use a comma after the author's name, a comma after the document title, and a comma after the date, a comma after the box and file number, a comma after the collection name, a comma after the repository name, and a period at the end of the note. 
  • After you’ve listed one full reference, any other footnote/endnote citing this specific source will use a shortened reference or ibid.

Note (Subsequent mentions, shortened reference):    

      7. Carolina Mountain Club, Hiking map to Shortoff Mountain.

  • The shortened reference refers to a work that has already been cited in full form but not in a note immediately preceding it (which takes the ibid form).
  • The first line is indented, but the note only requires the author's name and the title of the document (which is sometimes shortened).

 Bibliography:


Carolina Mountain Club ArchivesD. H. Ramsey Library Special Collections. University of North Carolina at
Asheville, Asheville, NC.
     
  • The first line is not indented, but the second line and all following lines are indented.
  • Use a period after the collection name, after the respository name, and after the author's name, and at the end of the bibliography entry.
  • While the note included the item or document being cited, the bibliography does not include specific items -- unless only one item from a collection is cited. Then you would list the individual item in addition to the collection, respository, and repository location. For instance, if you cited two or more items from the Carolina Mountain Club Archives, then you would use the bibliography entry as listed above. If you cited only the one document listed in the bibliography above and no more documents, then your bibliograhy entry would look like this:
Carolina Mountain Club. Hiking map to Shortoff Mountain. Carolina Mountain Club ArchivesD. H.
       Ramsey Library Special Collections. University of North Carolina at Asheville, Asheville, NC.

Citing Photographs

Photographs are a bit different in Chicago/Turabian style because they are cited in notes only and not in the bibliography.

You will need to use the following elements in your citation (Turabian, 8th ed., 17.8.1.1)

  • Name of the photographer (if known)
  • Title of the photograph in italics
  • Date of photograph (preceded by ca. [circa] in italics if approximate, or n.d. if unknown)
  • Name of the repository that houses the photograph

How to cite a photograph

Name/identifier of photograph 
    Date of photograph    
Photographer's Name
Photography collection           Repository
Box and folder  

Suppose you are researching the history of Tryon, NC. You find a photograph of a Catholic Church in Tryon, NC, in the R. Henry Scadin Collection that you want to use in your paper. You find this information about the photograph:

The photographer is R. Henry Scadin, and the photograph is labeled "Catholic Church, Tryon, NC," it's photograph number 958, and it's in Box 33. There is no date on the photograph. Here's how you would do the citation:

       4. R. Henry Scadin, Catholic Church, Tryon, NC, #958, n.d., Box 33, R. Henry Scadin Collection, D. H.
Ramsey Library Special Collections, University of North Carolina at Asheville, Asheville, NC.
  • Note that this is a full reference. The first line is indented.
  • The title and photograph number are in italics. If it does not have a title, use "untitled" and describe the photograph in your narrative. 
  • The photograph does not have a date. In this case, use the phrase n.d.
  • Use a comma after the photographer's name, a comma after the photograph title, a comma after the date, a comma after the box and file number, a comma after the collection name, a comma after the repository name, and a period at the end of the note. 
  • After you’ve listed one full reference, any other footnote/endnote citing this specific source will use a shortened reference or ibid.

Note (Subsequent mentions, shortened reference):    

  7. R. Henry Scadin, Catholic Church. 

  • The shortened reference refers to a work that has already been cited in full form but not in a note immediately preceding it (which takes the ibid form).
  • The first line is indented, but the note only requires the photographer's name and the title of the photograph (which is sometimes shortened).

There is no bibliography entry for a photograph.

 

   How to cite a photograph in an online collection 

Citing a photograph from an online, digitized collection is the same as citing a regular photograph, with the addition of adding the URL and an access date. 

Name/identifier of photograph 
    Date of photograph    
Photographer's Name
Photography collection             URL
Access date

You will need to use the following elements in your citation (Turabian, 8th ed., 17.8.1.1)

  • Name of the photographer (if known)
  • Title of the photograph in italics
  • Date of photograph (preceded by ca. [circa] in italics if approximate, or n.d. if unknown)
  • Name of the online collection
  • URL
  • Date accessed

You are writing a paper about Asheville in the early 20th century, and you want to use a photograph of President Theodore Roosevelt when he spoke at Pack Square in 1902.  You find a photograph of Roosevelt's talk in the Western North Carolina Heritage website, and you have this information:

The photographer is H. W. Pelton, the photograph is titled "Pack Square Crowds greet President Theodore Roosevelt." It's from the E. M. Ball Collection. The date is 1902, and the URL is http://cdm15733.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/Photographs/id/639.  You accessed it on November 5, 2014.

            4. H. W. Pelton, Pack Square Crowds Greet President Theodore Roosevelt, 1902, E. M. Ball Collection, accessed November 5, 2014, http://cdm15733.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/Photographs/id/639

  • Note that this is a full reference. The first line is indented.
  • The photograph title is in italics. If it does not have a title, use "untitled" and describe the photograph in your narrative. 
  • Use a comma after the photographer's name, a comma after the photograph title, a comma after the date, a comma after the accession date, and a period at the end of the note. 
  • After you’ve listed one full reference, any other footnote/endnote citing this specific source will use a shortened reference or ibid.

 

Citing Previously Published Magazine and Newspaper articles found in Manuscript Collections

Sometimes you will find newspaper clippings, magazine articles, or academic journal articles in a manuscript collection. How do you cite these? When citing a newspaper, magazine, or journal in a manuscript collection, it's good to also provide information about the article, such as the title of the article, the name of the newspaper, the author of the article, and the date it was published. Sometime you might not have all this information, especially if the article was clipped out of the newspaper, but you can use what information you do have to describe the article as completely as possible. Let's take a look at a few examples of how this would work.

Example 1: Citing a newspaper article or clipping from a manuscript collection

 

Look at the citation information from the Carolina Mountain Club Archives finding aid above. This has basic information about the collection, repository, and location of repository that you will need for your citation, but you will also add more information about the newspaper article. 

Let's say you're working with the Carolina Mountain Club Archives and you find a newspaper article that you need for your research. You find an article that you want to cite, and you are able to identify a lot of information about it.  The article is "Are Dogwoods Doomed?" by Clarke Morrison. It was published in The Asheville Citizen on September 14, 1990. It was in Box 9, Folder 3 of the Carolina Mountain Club Archives. To cite this, what you end up doing is using the citation style for a newspaper article and adding it to the manuscript citation - thereby providing information about both the original article and the manuscript collection where you found it.

So you have your document and you want to cite it. Now what? Let's take a look at how this would work:

Title of newspaper article (if known)

Name of newspaper (if known)

Author of article (if known)

Page number (if known)

Collection name

Box and file/folder number

Publication date (if known)

Repository

Location of Repository

 

Note (First mention, full reference):

        1. Clarke Morrison, "Are Dogwoods Doomed?," The Asheville Citizen, September 14, 1990, Box 9, Folder 3, Carolina Mountain Club ArchivesD. H. Ramsey Library Special Collections, University of North Carolina at Asheville, Asheville, NC.     

  • Note that this is a full reference. The first line is indented.
  • Note that this describes the information about the newspaper article, then describes the collection information.
  • Sometimes you will not have a date. In this case, use the phrase n.d.
  • Use a comma after every element of the note and a period at the end of the note. 
  • After you’ve listed one full reference, any other footnote/endnote citing this specific source will use a shortened reference or ibid.

 Note (Subsequent mentions, shortened reference):    

      7. Morrison"Dogwoods," Carolina Mountain Club Archives.

  • The shortened reference refers to a work that has already been cited in full form but not in a note immediately preceding it (which takes the ibid form).
  • The first line is indented, but the note only requires the author's name and the title of the document (which is sometimes shortened).

 Bibliography:


Carolina Mountain Club Archives. D. H. Ramsey Library Special Collections.
       University of North Carolina at Asheville, Asheville, NC.
 
     

  • The first line is not indented, but the second line and all following lines are indented.
  • Use a period after the collection name, after the repository name, and at the end of the bibliography entry.
  • While the note cites an individual item or document, the bibliography entry does not list specific items -- unless only one item from a collection is cited. In that case the bibliography will include the individual item in addition to the collection, repository, and repository location.
    • In other words, if you cited two or more items from the Carolina Mountain Club Archives, then you would use the bibliography entry as listed above.
    • If you cited only one item from the Carolina Mountain Club Archives in your paper, then your bibliography entry would look like this:

Morrison, Clarke. "Are Dogwoods Doomed?." The Asheville Citizen. September 14, 1990. Carolina Mountain Club        Archives. D. H. Ramsey Library Special Collections.  University of North Carolina at Asheville, Asheville, NC.

 

Example 2: Citing a newspaper article with missing information

Sometimes you will find a newspaper or magazine article that has been clipped from the original paper or magazine. All you have is an article - you don't have the author, publication date, or even what newspaper published the article. If you add no information at all the reader may wonder who wrote the article, what paper it was in, and when it was published. However, Chicago style allows for comments in footnotes and endnotes (CMOS, 14.32) that you can use to explain this, and the commentary is inserted at the end of the note.

Let's assume you're working with the Carlina Mountain Club Archives. You find a clipping of a newspaper article titled "Hiking the Appalachian Trail" in Box 9, Folder 3, but it does not list an author or publication date, and you can't tell what paper it was published in. Your citation would look like this:     

Note (First mention, full reference):

        1. "Hiking the Appalachian Trail," Box 9, Folder 3, Carolina Mountain Club Archives,  D. H. Ramsey Library Special Collections, University of North Carolina at Asheville, Asheville, NC. Newspaper clipping missing author, publication date, and name of newspaper.    

  • Note that this is a full reference. The first line is indented.
  • Note that this describes the information about the newspaper article, then describes the collection information. The additional phrase at the end clarifies why the information about the artilce is incomplete. 
  • Use a comma after every element of the note and a period after the repository location. Use a period after the commentary phrase. 
  • After you’ve listed one full reference, any other footnote/endnote citing this specific source will use a shortened reference or ibid.

 Note (Subsequent mentions, shortened reference):    

      7."Hiking the Appalachian Trail," Carolina Mountain Club Archives.

  • The shortened reference refers to a work that has already been cited in full form but not in a note immediately preceding it (which takes the ibid form).
  • The first line is indented, but the note only requires the author's name and the title of the document (which is sometimes shortened).

 Bibliography:


Carolina Mountain Club Archives. D. H. Ramsey Library Special Collections.
       University of North Carolina at Asheville, Asheville, NC.
 
     

  • The first line is not indented, but the second line and all following lines are indented.
  • Use a period after the collection name, after the repository name, and at the end of the bibliography entry.
  • While the note cites an individual item or document, the bibliography entry does not list specific items -- unless only one item from a collection is cited. In that case the bibliography will include the individual item in addition to the collection, repository, and repository location.
    • In other words, if you cited two or more items from the Carolina Mountain Club Archives, then you would use the bibliography entry as listed above.
    • If you cited only one item from the Carolina Mountain Club Archives in your paper, then your bibliography entry would look like this: 

"Hiking the Appalachian Trail." Carolina Mountain Club Archives. D. H. Ramsey Library Special Collections.                      University of North Carolina at Asheville, Asheville, NC 

 

Head of Special Collections & University Archivist

Gene Hyde's picture
Gene Hyde
Contact:
Special Collections, Ramsey Library
(828) 251-6645
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